Aftermath Of Gallipoli

After the evacuation, Allied troops reformed and regrouped in Egypt. The Anzacs underwent a major reorganization; the infantry were expanded and bound for the Western Front, the light horse were reunited with their horses and formed into mounted divisions for operations in the Sinai and Palestine. At the Battle of Beersheba they would finally achieve the decisive break-through victory that had eluded the Allies on Gallipoli.

Amongst the generals, Gallipoli marked the end for Hamilton and Stopford but Hunter-Weston was granted another opportunity to lead the VIII Corps on the first day of the Battle of the Somme. The competence of Australian brigade commanders, John Monash and Henry Chauvel, would be recognized with promotion to the command of divisions and ultimately corps. Lord Kitchener was too popular to be punished, but he never recovered his old reputation for invincibility and was increasingly sidelined by his colleagues until his death the following year.

On the Turkish side, the meteoric rise of Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) began at Gallipoli.

The Dardanelles Commission was established in 1916 to investigate the failure of the expedition. Its final report was issued in 1919, concluding that the adventure had been badly planned and difficulties underestimated, and that government had exacerbated problems through its procrastination. However its censures did not damage careers measurably, further than they already had been.

For the young nations of Australia and New Zealand, however, the adventure was a formative event both politically and culturally. At the time of the Great War, Australia was a nation of fewer than five million people. The war affected everyone in some way. It helped bring about economic change. Political events became bitter and controversial. Reputations were made and lost. It was the first time they had played a role on the world stage as nations in their own right.

Popular Australian history asserts that while the Federation of Australia was born in 1901, but the country's true psychological independence was only achieved at Gallipoli. ANZAC Day is commemorated every year on the landings' anniversary, April 25, and is a national holiday in both Australia and New Zealand.

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